Body generally compressed, although body shape extremely variable from very deep to fusiform. Their tail makes a D-shape when viewed from the side. Cheimarrichthyidae - (Torrentfish) Distribution: South Africa and Madagascar. Vertebrae 30-34. Such rivers are unstable, their beds shift during floods. Dorsal spines 3-17, flexible; 9-119 segmented soft rays. Also Ref. On the Pacific slope, cichlids are found in a succession of permanent rivers south to the Río Jequetepeque or perhaps even to slightly south of Lima, Peru. Family content changed since Ref. The check-list herein recognizes 403 valid Neotropical cichlid species out of XXX nominal taxa. About 80 cm maximum length, in Boulengerochromis microlepis. Maximum length about 1.4 m. Foil shaped fins generate thrust when moved, the lift of the fin sets water or air in motion and pushes the fin in the opposite direction. Flat nasal organ devoid of lamellae; lateral line running along base of dorsal fin. Feed on zooplankton. Body elongate. Tholichthys larval stage with the head region covered with bony plates. Pelvic fin like an inverted bowl, 3-5 soft rays; pelvics very close to each other. Vertebrae often 28-44 (135 in Xiphasia) (Ref. 96888). The loss of a major structural association between parts A2 and Aw of the adductor mandibulae muscle and the musculous insertion of a large ventral section of A2 onto the posterior border of the ascending process of the anguloarticular (Stiassny, 1981); The majority of the Neotropical cichlids feed on a variety of invertebrates and some plant matter, and specializations among those species remain little investigated. Gill rakers very short, less than 15 in number. 7463. Kullander (1998) estimated that there are about ten undescribed North-Central American cichlid taxa and about 160 undescribed South American taxa. Suggested new common name for this family in a coming ref. Clinidae - (Clinids) Maximum length about 55 cm. On the Pacific slope, cichlids are found in a succession of permanent rivers south to the Río Jequetepeque or perhaps even to slightly south of Lima, Peru. Tholichthys larval stage with the head region covered with bony plates. Warm temperate to tropical (Ref. If a female remains stationary and her partner contacts her vent with his gonopodium, she is fertilized. Another early major treatise is by Jardine (1843), based on the Schomburgk collection from Guyana, Brazil and Venezuela (Kullander & Stawikowski, 1997a-b, for identifications). Lateral line goes down to ventral surface gradually or abruptly. A few mouthbrooding species practice exclusive maternal brood care, with a minimum delay between egg-laying and oral incubation (Gymnogeophagus balzanii, NE Colombian Geophagus species). Forehead steep and high in adult males. Primarily Indo-west Pacific. Body elongate. Maximum total length is about 16 cm, most specimens are about 10 - 12.5 cm. Mouth usually nonprotrusible. The check-list herein recognizes 403 valid Neotropical cichlid species out of XXX nominal taxa. 94102). The depressed head, its flattened ventral surface, combined with the broad pectoral and pelvic fins are hydrodynamically attuned to the swift-flowing currents. Sexes differ in color and the female is smaller than the male and assumes all or most of the care for the eggs and young. 95096). Mainly temperate in both southern and northern hemispheres (Ref. 50 cm) lutjanoid fishes; eye moderately large, its diameter longer than snout length. 119093). To about 83 cm maximum length (reported for Micropterus salmoides). About 80 cm maximum length, in Boulengerochromis microlepis. The lateral line is usually divided into one anterior upper portion ending below the end of the dorsal-fin base, and a posterior lower portion running along the middle of the caudal peduncle. Chaenopsidae - (Pike-, tube- and flagblennies) Cryptacanthodidae - (Wrymouths) However, swim bladders are absent in many fish, most notably in Lungfishes, which are the only fish to have retained the primitive lung present in the common ancestor of bony fish from which swim bladders evolved. Anal fin soft rays 6-8. Erythrocytes lacking in most or all species and is thought to be probably compensated for by the cold, well-oxygenated habitat, a large volume of blood circulation and skin respiration. Vertebrae 30-34. Anal fin soft rays 6-8. The anal fin with 1 spine and 15 soft rays. Adapt well to aquarium conditions. Spines in dorsal fin 14-16; soft rays 15-21. 9850). Pseudoscopelus with photophores and sometimes placed in its own family. Body elongate, rounded anteriorly and compressed posteriorly; head broad, depressed, with eyes set high. The pelvic fins are under the head, anterior to the broad pectoral fins. Subfamily Pseudamiinae Smith 1954 is found along the continental coasts and islands of the Red Sea, Dorsal fins far apart. Some of the most enigmatic cases includes ‘Cichlasoma’ urophthalmus, of which Hubbs (1936) described numerous subspecies. 58418. Some with the distal portion of the median-fin spines unossified (Ref. 7463. 94100). Scales in lateral line often with three-lobed posterior extensions, except the most anterior scales. 119093). Spines in dorsal fin 14-23; soft rays 16-21. Distinguished in having a relatively long palatine compared to the length of the vomer; rather than proximal, the post-temporal ventral arm is free from the neurocranium; the posterior portion of the lateral line lacking embedded, tubed scales; long upper jaw in both sexes, surpassing the posterior margin of the orbit; the insertion of the hyomandibula on the neurocranium is shifted posteriorly away from the orbit; the sphenotic bearing a small lateral spine; dorsal arm of the scapula reduced and free from the cleithrum (except Mccoskerichthys and at least one species of Neoclinus); unbranched caudal-fin rays (Ref. Long anal fin with a single spine. Pale brown above and cream-colored below, with or without spots; or uniformly pink or red. Morphology: Body oblong to fusiform; D X-XV,8-22 with slender weak spines; A III,9-13; pelvic fins I,5; pectoral fins 16-24; caudal fin distinctly forked with pointed lobes; scale rows on body running horizontally; dorsal and anal fins with scales except for Gymnocaesio Dichistiidae - (Galjoen fishes) Most species have strong canines and molars for digging out and crushing clams and other hard-shelled prey. Spineless dorsal fin in posterior half of the body. Pelagic spawners. 4. One of the most important families of tropical marine fishes; fished commercially and for recreation. No spines on anal fin. To about 50 cm maximum length. Freshwater species = ISCAAP 13; marine species = ISCAAP 39. 119093). Continuous dorsal fin with 12-43 unbranched soft rays. Suggested new common name for this family in a coming ref. Named Bovichthyidae in Nelson (1994). All have been assigned to Datnioides, now the genus type for the family. 119093). Channidae - (Snakeheads) There is no scientific monograph covering all Neotropical cichlid species, but numerous aquarium books of variable quality, of which Stawikowski & Werner (1998) may be consulted for the most updated compilation of cichlasomine cichlids. The subterminal mouth is very effective for grazing invertebrates from rock surfaces. Gill membranes separate, free of the isthmus; except in Rathbunella broadly joined and forming a free fold across the isthmus. Scales ctenoid or cycloid. Practically all genera and more than half of the species have been kept in aquaria at some time. Anal fin soft rays 6-8. Gill membranes fused. The northernmost species are Herichthys cyanoguttatus from the lower Rio Grande drainage in Texas, USA, on the Atlantic coast, and ‘Cichlasoma beani’, which reaches north to the Río Yaquí on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Scales covering head (including maxilla, snout, and occiput). Country monographs of cichlids are available for Peru (Kullander, 1986) and Surinam (Kullander & Nijssen, 1989). [52] However, recent insights from developmental patterning have prompted reconsideration of both theories in order to better elucidate the origins of paired fins. Anal fin soft rays 6-8. Mouth and stomach very distensible. Spawning takes place in open water near the surface. Juveniles enter fresh water in spring and spend the rest of their lives there. Interrupted lateral line in most species. Pale brown above and cream-colored below, with or without spots; or uniformly pink or red. Deeply forked caudal fin. Spines in anal fin 3-15 (generally 3); soft rays 4-15 (a few with 30). Mouth and stomach very distensible. Pelvic axis usually with scaly process. Hide in holes at night (Ref. Dorsal fin long, starting at the head, and composed of 69-88 flexible spines in Anarhichas and 218-250 in Anarrhichthys. Forehead steep and high in adult males. Vomerine teeth present; palatine teeth present in all except Cryptacanthodes aleutensis. Marine (often brackish); some in freshwater. Pectoral fins large and rounded. Body elongate, rounded anteriorly and compressed posteriorly; head broad, depressed, with eyes set high. and Psammoperca (1 sp.) Maxillary process on dentigerous process of premaxilla absent. The mouth is small and non protractile, the snout overhangs the lower jaw. (2000: 146-229) summarize data for 38 cichlid species from French Guiana and adjacent countries; Greenfield & Thomerson (1997:184-206) cover 19 species from Belize Channichthyidae - (Crocodile icefishes) A few Neotropical cichlids are recorded from brackish water conditions. Morphology: Continuous dorsal fin with 0-4 spines (often 3). The oral jaws are generally highly movable and protrusible, and tooth shape varies greatly, although most Neotropical cichlids have simple, subconical, unicuspid teeth, whereas African cichlids commonly have laterally bicuspid or tricuspid oral teeth. Distribution: Southern Hemisphere (parts of Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans) and Northern Hemisphere (off Japan, China and Hawaiian Islands). Named Bovichthyidae in Nelson (1994). Gill membranes broadly connected to the isthmus, gill openings not continued far forward.

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