Other noted designations for this strain include: AJ 1009T, AS 1.2299T,  ATCC 15307 T, ATCC 4698 T, BCRC 11034 T, BUCSAV 393 T, CCM 169 T, CCRC 11034 T, CCT 2283 T, CCT 2688 T, CCT 2692 T, CCT 3024 T, CCTM 2979 T, CCTM La 2979 T, CCUG 5858 T, CDBB 72 T, CECT 5053 T, CECT 51 T, CECT 5863 T, CGMCC 1.1848 T, CGMCC 1.2299 T, CIP A270 T, CIPA270 T, CN 3475 T, CNCTC 6599 T, CNCTC M 15/65 T, DSM 20030 T, DSMZ 20030 T, FIRDI 1034 T, Fleming A T, GIFU 8717 T, GISK 15307 T, HAMBI 1398 T, HAMBI 1399 T, HAMBI 26 T, HUT-8101 T, IAM 1056 T, IAM 13591 T, IEGM 391 T, IEM 1056 T, IEM 65 T, IEM M 15/65 T, IEM M15 T, IFO 1056 T, IFO 3333T, IMI 349015 T, IMSNU 20332 T, IMSNU 20354 T, JCM 1464 T, KACC 10488 T, KCTC 1056T, KCTC 3063 T, LMD 78.1 T, LMG 4050 T, ML8 T, NBIMCC 1439 T, NBRC 3333 T, NCCB 78001 T, NCDO 947 T, NCFB 947 T, NCIB 10474 T, NCIB 9278 T, NCIM 2170 T, NCIMB 10474 T, NCIMB 9278 T, NCTC 2665 T, NRIC 1094 T, NRRL B-287 T, PCM 525 T, PCM 525 T, RIMD 1303001 T, SMG 4050 T, strain A. Fleming T, USCC 1230 T, USCC 1534 T, USCC 555 T, VKM 1314 T, VKM Ac-2230 T, VKM B-1314 T, VKM B-1314 T, VKM B-1813 T, VTT E-93442 T, WDCM 00111 T (Verslyppe et al. Purmal K, Chin S, Pinto J, Yin W, Chan K. 2010. growth promotion of plants (Raza and Faisal, 2013). Strain Passport ATCC 4698 Micrococcus luteus. A search of the public domain (MSDS, literature and patents) revealed the following consumer, commercial and industrial applications for other strains of M. luteus. 2001); 28 cases of bacteremia after medication with central venous catheters were identified in a seven-year survey from 2002 to 2008 (Hirata et al. Mortensen N and Kocur M. 1967. Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, and other catalase- positive cocci. 2007. There is no evidence from the scientific literature to suggest that M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 is likely to have adverse effects on human health. nutrients/gelatinase ... Sulfur reduction test, Indole production, Motility (SIM) deeps all 3 tests done w/SIM deeps just add Kovac’s reagent for Indole test ... Micrococcus luteus (left) Alcaligenes faecalis (middle) • Reduction of nitrate to nitrite to be used as a final electron Because product formulations may have changed, information from the 2009 survey may more accurately represent current uses. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 65(7):1680-3. Beitr Biol Pflanz 1:127–244. 1986; Sims and O'Loughlin, 1992). Lysozyme can neutralize the proinflammatory effects of peptidoglycan; lysozyme-deficient mice experience extensive tissue injury when experimentally injected with M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 and this effect is the same whether M. luteus cells are live or killed, suggesting that inactivation of peptidoglycan, not a bacteriocidal effect of lysozyme, is protective (Ganz et al. Should these potential uses of M. luteus be realized for strain ATCC 4698 in Canada, it is likely to be introduced into both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Purification and cloning of Micrococcus luteus ultraviolet endonuclease, an N-glycosylase/abasic lyase that proceeds via an imino enzyme-DNA intermediate. The arrow indicates the DSL strain. There are no reports in the scientific literature directly implicating M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 in adverse effects on the environment. growth promotion of fish (Abd El-Rhman et al. Proceedings of Royal Society. 2009. No adverse effects of M. luteus have been observed in aquatic or terrestrial invertebrates. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses of all 10 Micrococcus species showed that 8 of the 10 Micrococcus species, including Micrococcus luteus, cluster together, while M. lactis and M. terreus cluster more closely with Zhihengliuella and Arthrobacter species (see Figure 1-1). Preliminary studies on the characterization and distribution of Staphylococcus and Micrococcus species on animal skin. The effect was dependent on the presence of as little as <1% v/v water, suggesting that the mechanism of this effect may be the formation of carbonic acid within the cell. Process for preparing 2,6-diaminopurine-2'-deoxyriboside and 2'-deoxyguanosine. After it was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq at the UAF Core lab, I used the online program Base Space to analyze the reads that I got from sequencing. 2008. These residential skin organisms are also fairly ubiquitous in the environment. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 29(1):19-24. Diversity of 746 heterotrophic bacteria isolated from microbial mats from ten Antarctic lakes. VKMM 037. 2006a. Almost all followed a medical procedure that could introduce micro-organisms from the skin into sterile body compartments, often in individuals with debilitating diseases, such as cancer or kidney failure. Most plasmids are associated with degradation of chemicals in the environment and resistance to chemicals, heavy metals and antibiotics. Uses reported in the 2007 voluntary survey were also considered in the assessment of potential uses. 1977. M. luteus is sensitive to high pressure carbon dioxide, and treatment with 50 bar carbon dioxide at 65°C completely inactivated M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 on hospital-type fabric (50% cotton and 50% polyester) (Cinquemani et al. part of a dairy product (Vermin and Spinnler, 2004). 1994), which enable the cells to survive long periods under adverse environmental conditions, such as starvation and dryness (Kaprelyants et al. Characterization of Antarctic psychrotrophic bacteria with antibacterial activities against terrestrial microorganisms. Presently, the genus Micrococcus includes 10 species (LPSN, 2015): Taxonomic differentiation of Micrococcus species is more reliable by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, using Micrococcaceae-specific signature nucleotides at positions 293-304, 610, 598, 615-625, 1025-1036, 1026-1035, 1265-1270 and 1278 according to Escherichia coli numbering (Wieser et al., 2002). also be used to differentiate Serratia marcescens, Proteus In M. Dworkin, S. Falkow, E. Rosenberg, K.-H. Schleifer & E. Stackebrandt (Eds. Coaggregation between freshwater bacteria within biofilm and planktonic communities. At temperatures above The environmental hazard potential of M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 is assessed to be low because despite of the widespread occurrence of M. luteus in the environment, the evidence from the scientific literature suggests that M. luteus does not adversely affect aquatic or terrestrial vertebrates, invertebrates or plants at the population level in the environment. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 67:289-95. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 72(3):133-7. Lampert Y, Kelman D, Dubinsky Z, Nitzan Y, Hill RT. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76(4):1212-23. 1999. 1995, 2002, 2006; Votyakova et al. Bevinakatti BG and Ninnekar HZ. Another set of tests that I performed were physiological tests, including testing for oxygen class with fluid thyoglycate, checking for catalase using hydrogen peroxide, checking for cytochrome c oxidase using oxidase test strips, and using an API 20 E test strip to test for various different physiological traits such as Sulphur reduction, which had 20 different tests. Muralytic activity of Micrococcus luteus rpf and its relationship to physiological activity in promoting bacterial growth and resuscitation. that hydrolyzes gelatin. US Patent No: 6,197,552. García Fontán MC, Lorenzo JM, Parada A, Franco I, Carballo J. alkaline groundwater (pH 11.4) (Tiago et al. The positive catalase result lines up with M. luteus (Public Health England). When performing tests for physiological traits, the results were limited. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 37(1):42-50. Responses to a voluntary questionnaire sent in 2007 to a subset of key biotechnology companies, combined with information obtained from other federal regulatory and non-regulatory programs, indicated that that 10,000 to 100,000 kg of products potentially containing M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 (formulation and concentration unknown) were imported into or manufactured in Canada in 2006-2007 for use in consumer and commercial products. 2005). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52(Pt 2):629-37. 2004). Biotechnology Letters 32(12):1853-62. 1966): the genus Micrococcus retained the aerobic glucose-utilizers or non-utilizers and strains with higher G+C (66-73%), while glucose-fermenters and strains with low G+C (30-37%) were placed into the genus Staphylococcus. The colony morphology is the same as well, being round, shiny, and sort of flat (Medical Laboratories). The results indicated that M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 was not imported or manufactured in Canada in 2008, except for limited quantities used for academic research, teaching, and research and development activities. 2013). Bibel DJ and Smiljanic HJ. The colony morphology of being yellow, shiny and smooth line up perfectly with M. luteus (Public Health England). I performed a Gram stain test to identify if the bacterium was gram negative or positive, as described in the Lab 4 handout. I then repeated this three more times to further purify the isolate.

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