One progeny, however, possessed a 723 bp MdMYBA band regardless of the no red allele, which may be due to the recombination between the MdMYBA marker and the BC226-STS marker. (A) Gel-shift assays were carried out using the 138 bp fragment (F2 fragment) of the apple ANS promoter as the probe and reaction solutions of cell-free protein synthesis. Many reports have been published to elucidate the biosynthetic ge... Genetic transformation was successfully established producing both transformed adventitious shoots and calli in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) by using cotyledons as explants. The pigmentation of anthocyanins is one of the important determinants for consumer preference and marketability in horticultural crops such as fruits and flowers. For pear, this event directly affects fruit production in the following year. Biophys. Anthocyanin biosynthesis in apples is regulated by MdMYB1/A/10, an R2R3-Type MYB gene. These results in grape showed that different types of MYB transcription factors differentially regulated the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid in the early and ripening stages. Therefore, the increase in anthocyanin concentrations induced by UV-B irradiation and low-temperature treatment could be attributed to the activation of MdMYBA. 7B). The reason for this change is unknown. Recently, Takos et al. Honda made his first appearance on 21 September 2016. Fourteen apple cultivars differing in their skin colors were used for the further characterization of the MdMYBA marker. Indeed, previous observations indicated that MYB transcription factors functioned as an activator for bHLH transcription, therefore MYB efficiently formed a complex with bHLH and the resultant complex could successively induce anthocyanin biosynthesis (Koes et al. Pre-hybridization (1 h) and hybridization (overnight) were carried out in a high-SDS hybridization buffer containing 50% formamide, 5× SSC, 2% blocking solution (Roche Diagnostics), 0.1% lauroylsarcosine and 7% SDS at 42°C. 4), providing further evidence that MdMYBA is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple skin. Nakai], Effects of Non-woven Fabric Mulching and Irrigation on Growth and Fruit Quality of Fig with Different Tree Vigor, Effect of Height of Primary Scaffold Branch on Freezing Injury of Fig (Ficus carica L.), Characteristics of Endodormancy of F1 Hybrids between Japanese Pear TH3 and Taiwanese Pear Yokoyama, Transformation of kiwifruit using the ipt gene alters tree architecture, Antisense inhibition of a spermidine synthase gene highlights the role of polyamines for stress alleviation in pear shoots subjected to salinity and cadmium, Effect of Jasmonates on Ethylene Biosynthesis and Aroma Volatile Emission in Japanese Apricot Infected by a Pathogen (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), Identification of differentially-expressed genes potentially related to stress tolerance in a transgenic line of European pear overexpressing an apple spermidine synthase gene (MdSPDS1), Ectopic expression of MdSPDS1 in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) reduces canker susceptibility: Involvement of H2O2 production and transcriptional alteration, Enhanced polyamine accumulation alters carotenoid metabolism at the transcriptional level in tomato fruit over-expressing spermidine synthase, Effects of Girdling on Freezing Injury of Fig (Ficus carica L.), Super-high Density Planting of Fig (Ficus carica L.) for Early Recovery from Sick Soil and Low Temperature Injury, Overexpression of apple spermidine synthase 1 (MdSPDS1) leads to significant salt tolerance in tomato plants, Functional characterization of the apple MdSAMDC2 gene by ectopic promoter analysis and over-expression in tobacco, Effect of 9-Hydroxy-10-oxo-12(Z), 15(Z)-octadecadienoic Acid (KODA) on Endodormancy Breaking in Flower Buds of Japanese Pear, Effect of methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) on polyamine and ethylene biosynthesis of apple fruit after harvest, Cloning, biochemical identification, and expression analysis of a gene encoding S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase in navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), Suppression Subtractive Hybridization as a Tool to Identify Anthocyanin Metabolism-Related Genes in Apple Skin, Molecular Cloning of Dormancy-associated MADS-box Gene Homologs and Their Characterization during Seasonal Endodormancy Transitional Phases of Japanese Pear, Genomic organization of plant aminopropyl transferases, Emitted and endogenous volatiles in ‘Tsugaru’ apple: The mechanism of ester and (E,E)-α-farnesene accumulation, A putative PhODO1 homologous MYB transcription factor gene, MdMYBB, is not involved in the regulation of aroma volatile biosynthesis in apple, UDP-sugar biosynthetic pathway: Contribution to cyanidin 3-galactoside biosynthesis in apple skin, Aluminum tolerance in a spermidine synthase-overexpressing transgenic European pear is correlated with the enhanced level of spermidine via alleviating oxidative status, Spermidine levels are implicated in heavy metal tolerance in a spermidine synthase overexpressing transgenic European pear by exerting antioxidant activities, L-Ascorbate biosynthesis in peach: cloning of six L-galactose pathway-related genes and their expression during peach fruit development, Potential regulation of apple in vitro shoot growth via modulation of cellular polyamine contents, Effects of auxin and Jasmonates on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase gene expression during ripening of apple fruit, Spray pollination as a labor-saving pollination system in Japanese pear ( Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.f.) 5B). One is encoded by VlMybA1-1, whose expression was detected in ripening grape (Kobayashi et al. (2002) and Ubi et al. 2002) was constitutively expressed in tobacco, anthocyanin accumulation occurred in the whole plant, including both vegetative and reproductive tissues (data not shown). 2007). The red allele (A1) perfectly matched the 723 bp band amplified by the MdMYBA marker, whereas the no red allele (a1) matched the 656 bp band, indicating that each A1 and a1 allele is tightly linked with a 723 and 656 bp band, respectively. Moreover, C1 and PL induce the expression of multiple anthocyanin biosynthetic genes such as CHS, DFR and UFGT (Cone and Burr 1989). When other apples, Malus × domestica niedzwetzkyana and ‘Maypole’, were used for analysis, no MdMYBA signals were detected in the flesh from ripened fruits of both apples regardless of the red coloration (Fig. [14] The wedding episode aired on 3 September 2018. The genomic region of a type 3 metallothionein (MT3)-like gene (CitMT45) with extensive expression in citrus fruit was isolated from Citrus unshiu Marc. To assess whether MdMYBA can bind to the promoters of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, we carried out a gel-shift assay (Fig. [4] Honda became engaged to his partner Amy Schwab in May 2019. In addition, the binding signal was reduced by adding high concentrations of the non-specific competitor poly[d(A–T)] and was inhibited by the non-labeled F2 fragment (Fig. His father, Kazuya Honda, was the coach for the Australia women's national gymnastics team. Interestingly, MdMYBA was detected in the skin of Malus × domestica niedzwetzkyana as in ‘Jonathan’, but not in the skin of ‘Maypole’ (Fig. Lane 1 contained no pIVEX 1.3 WG-MdMYBA in the reaction solution of protein synthesis, whereas lanes 2–7 did. The stained tissues were treated with pure ethanol several times for bleaching. Mansf.] Meanwhile, the a1a1 genotype (five cultivars) stably showed the 656 bp band of the MdMYBA marker, which was consistent with a yellow or green skin color. Recently, Hartmann et al. In order to promote increases in the size of ‘Kosui’ Japanese pear [Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) 2007), while MdMYBA was below the level of detection in the skins collected from mid-season fruits and was detected only in the ripened skin from the white-fleshed cultivar ‘Tsugaru’ (Fig. var. At Japan's National Institute of Fruit Tree Science, systematic apple breeding began in 1939, and more than 10 cultivars (including ‘Sansa’ and ‘Fuji’) have been released so far. Collected skin samples were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen, and then were stored at −80°C until they could be used for RNA isolation. For further characterization of MdMYBA expression, the flesh and skin of mature fruits of ‘Maypole’ (119 DAFB), M. × domestica niedzwetzkyana and ‘Jonathan’ were also used. (2006) and Ban et al. Moreover, the expression level of MdMYBA in ‘Jonathan’ (a deep-red cultivar) was much higher than that in ‘Tsugaru’ (a pale-red cultivar) (Fig. Over 1000 genes were differentially expressed (P < 0.05, ≥2-fold change). The effect of 9-hydroxy-10-oxo-12(Z), 15(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (KODA) on endodormancy breaking was studied in flower buds of japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). To elucidate the cause of such freezing injury, we studied the effect of nitrogen (N) supplementation from livestock waste compost added to gray lowland soil on the freezing tolerance of Japanese chestnut trees in terms of their c... Plants are challenged by a variety of biotic or abiotic stresses, which can affect their growth and development, productivity, and geographic distribution.

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