0000220834 00000 n Earthquakes were felt … 0000001741 00000 n According to the Colorado Geological Survey (CGS), a lone 4.8 magnitude earthquake, on 9 August 1967 cost over 1 million U.S. dollars in property damages. 0000006176 00000 n The well remained unused for nearly 20 years. Careers, The following is a list of notable earthquakes and tsunamis which had their epicenter in areas that are now part of the United States with the latter affecting areas of the United States. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia 22092 Injection of fluid wastes into the fractured Preqambfian crystalline bedrock beneath the Rocky Moun- tain Arsenal near Denver triggered earthquakes in the 1960's. As provided by CERCLA, a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) was conducted to determine the extent of contamination. “HA-84 HAZUS 2005: Rocky Mountain Arsenal Fault Earthquake Event Report.” Earthquake Simulation. It was historically reported using the Richter scale. Support the independent voice of Denver and help keep the future of Westword free. On a smaller scale the US army's Rocky Mountain arsenal near Denver Colorado was considered to be in a geologically stable region until the early 1960s. Earthquake faults are mapped lines of past movement and rupture. The first inklings of the connection came in the early 1960s from Colorado’s Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA). A set of worst-case scenarios replicating events of maximum intensity based on particular known historical earthquakes or faults. Use of this website constitutes acceptance of our terms of use, our cookies policy, and our privacy policy. Additional cement barriers were placed inside the casing across zones that could access water-bearing formations (aquifers). But forty years ago, a series of quakes rocked the Denver area -- quakes caused not by Mother Nature, but by Uncle Sam. The Rocky Mountain area has had earthquakes over the years; however, they are normally spread out over long periods of time. They began to worsen. Scientific literature on the subject refers to "the classic case of injection-induced seismicity at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal," and countless academic papers cite the Healy paper as proof of human-caused earthquakes (out of hundreds of papers that cite Healy, the following were published in 1970, 1976, 1989, 1992 etc. žS´"v6«õÎ ZñˆÅa²FÈÆb6_i‹È¼£Eߘ;™|=#i’óØÌ7ŠOÁ…Ó¨Õ[Ü åâæÞÙ;–Ý[ñò’vKÆϏp4ª¬LzÆ3ˬHD™’1)¯_„Óhi÷ù‰|9'K³‚zu¼ºø¨QÝfeÒ'ų3uXÒÊ;@ !½Ì`„2a"jP%fPš Æ`pƒ2”`zØЌc…ɨ„ÁdTàb„" Ô|@ZˆÃÁ¯ŒIqæ ¬ VüÌx0Û1Ü9`ÒÀðƒÙ€á. Houses creaked and objects rattled during this magnitude 2.1 earthquake. Over 1,300 earthquakes were recorded at Bergen Park between January 1963 and August 9, 1967. The seismicity triggered by the collapse of the Crandall Canyon Mine was hardly an unusual event. 0000007982 00000 n (A new plot … Contact Us, On a smaller scale the US army's Rocky Mountain arsenal near Denver Colorado was considered to be in a geologically stable region until the early 1960s. 0000005303 00000 n They awakened many residents, but were not widely felt. It was felt at Laramie, Wyoming, to the northwest, east to Goodland, Kansas, and south to Pueblo, Colorado. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge was established, in part, to protect our national symbol, the bald eagle. In 1961, a 12,000-foot well was drilled at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, northeast of Denver, for disposing of waste fluids from Arsenal operations. From 1962 -- 1963, the fluids were pumped from Basin F into the well. from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. 0000011746 00000 n A. Dietrich f. h,_ During the 1968 pumping tests at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal disposal well, the U.S. Geological Survey was responsible for moni­ wring earthquakes occurring in the area of the arsenal ami making chemical analysis of the fluids removed. Colorado has a long history of induced earthquakes, going back to the first study in the 1960s at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Golden, CO: Colorado Geological Survey, 2006. The program consisted of four tests between September 3 and October 26. assumption of preexistent tectonic strains in the area of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal seems to be confirmed. In 1967, an earthquake of magnitude 5.5 followed a series of smaller earthquakes. Map of faults in Rocky Mountain National Park . Colorado has a long history of induced earthquakes, going back to the first study in the 1960s at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. 0000007120 00000 n Staff, Terms, A local shock awakened a few persons in Commerce City November 25. The largest and most widely known resulted from fluid injection at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal near Denver, Colorado. 0000002610 00000 n However, the earthquakes did not stop, continuing at a rate of “from 4 to 71 per month”. Slighter rumblings (below magnitude 3.0) occurred throughout the remainder of 1966, and through the first week of April 1967. In 1987, the RMA was placed on the National Priorities List(NPL) of Superfund sites. 0000218854 00000 n In 1984, the Army began a systematic investigation of site contamination in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), commonly referred to as Superfund. Residents were generally shaken, but no damage was sustained. The shock shuffled furniture around in homes, and left electrical wall outlets hanging by their wires at Irondale. 0000004387 00000 n In the 1960s, scientists linked a waste water injection well in the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge to seismicity in the area. Earthquakes reported in this study were of magnitude z 1.0; most were greater than magnitude 2.0, with the exception of the Denver events. The injected fluids had very little potential for reaching the surface or useable groundwater supply since the injection point had 11,900 feet of rock above it and was sealed at the opening. The injection began in the Rocky Mountain Arsenal disposal well in 1962. 0000010129 00000 n Help, The independent voice of Denver since 1977. 0000220101 00000 n After the war, it became a bustling center of industrial activity -- a top-secret center that created a lot of dangerous waste. The second largest earthquake in the Denver series occurred on November 26, 1967. On 10 April 1967, the largest earthquake so far shook Denver. Join the Westword community and help support independent local journalism in Denver. %PDF-1.6 %âãÏÓ Boulder sustained minor damage to walls and acoustical tile ceilings on April 27, 1967, as result of a magnitude 4.4 earthquake. Three criteria were es­ 1 (1966): 23–36. The Westword may earn a portion of sales from products & services purchased through links on our site from our affiliate partners. You can help by participating in our "I Support" membership program, allowing us to keep covering Denver with no paywalls. 3 (Winter 2014): 288–315. Many homeowners reported wall, ceiling, floor, patio, sidewalk, and foundation cracks. In 1962, crews at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, a now-defunct chemical weapons plant just north of Denver, began injecting liquid waste down a well that penetrated more than two miles of earth. Next, the injection zone at the bottom 70 feet of the well was closed by plugging with cement. (A new plot with wastewater disposal wells will … 0000009034 00000 n 0000220030 00000 n ©2020 Denver Westword, LLC. %%EOF The first page of the PDF appears below. After an extensive study of deep injection wells across the country by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), it was concluded that this procedure is effective and protective of the environment. The final step was adding Bentonite, a heavy clay mud that later solidified, to close the rest of the hole up to the ground surface. In what Morgan said is still the gold standard of such studies, researchers at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal near Denver in 1966 produced earthquakes by … Today, the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, once some of the most contaminated land in the country, is a cleaned-up nature center. ). Locations of the park’s known, approximate, and concealed faults are shown in Figure 2. Evans, David M. “The Denver Area Earthquakes and the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Disposal Well.” The Mountain Geologist 3, no. startxref Many residents reported it was the strongest earthquake they had ever experienced. Several reported basement floors separated from walls. More than 700 earthquakes in the Denver area ensued over the following four years. Underground carbon dioxide storage likely would cause earthquakes ... where the Army was injecting waste deep into a well at its Rocky Mountain Arsenal. All rights reserved. Reader: Lockdowns Affecting Mental Health? CALIFORNIA RESIDENTS: California Privacy Policy | California Collection Notice | Do Not Sell My Info. Abstract View the First Page. But with local journalism's existence under siege and advertising revenue setbacks having a larger impact, it is important now more than ever for us to rally support behind funding our local journalism. 0000002518 00000 n Here's the history of the Arsenal quakes from the USGS site: In 1961, a 12,000-foot well was drilled at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, northeast of Denver, for disposing of waste fluids from Arsenal operations. 0000011049 00000 n The waste from the pre-treatment plant was generally a solution containing 13,000 parts per million sodium chloride (salt), with a pH ranging from 3.5 to 11.5. 0000001957 00000 n Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity3 Earthquake magnitude is a number that characterizes the relative size of an earthquake. A similar shock, magnitude 4.1, centered in the Denver area November 15. In February 1966, injecting wastewater fluid into the well at Rocky Mountain Arsenal was stopped, because of the suggested link to the earthquakes in the area. Three shocks in 1965 -- February 16, September 29, and November 20 -- caused intensity VI damage in Commerce City and environs. Damage on a lesser scale occurred throughout the area. Here you can see damage to a bridge. Current Basin F liquid consists of very salty water that includes some metals, chlorides, wastewater and toxic organics. Arsenal northeast of Denver, CO, to dispose of contaminated waste water. Arsenal northeast of Denver, CO, to dispose of contaminated waste water. Home > Browse Collections > Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists > Sub-Collection The Mountain Geologist > Year 1966. 0000006271 00000 n xÚb```f``)b`e`hÜÀ Ā B@1vŽ0‘7|®N4ˆ00p>°8’®erä”Sړ%wõò\ªq(¨ç1ç4Àø„ý¸€ËL§¥Ý3Œ2nÉR’qèJ嚦—prqºð²€)…L First, the well casing was tested to evaluate its integrity. As such, the USGS has been focusing extensively on that area, especially since the big M5.3 Raton Basin earthquake in 2011. During the 1968 pumping tests at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal disposal well, the U.S. Geological Survey was responsible for moni­ wring earthquakes occurring in the area of the arsenal ami making chemical analysis of the fluids removed. The end result was approximately 165 million gallons of Basin F liquid waste being injected into the well during the period from 1962 through 1966. 0000218614 00000 n Many slight shocks occurred near the well during this period. In 1967, an earthquake of magnitude 5.5 followed a series of smaller earthquakes. Furthermore, these risks are not specific to soft-rock injections. Arsenal disposal Well. ” the Mountain Geologist 3, no Geologist 3, no and earthquake... Window breaker that surprised Dupont and Irondale on the National Priorities List ( NPL ) of sites. Part of the possibility that the fluid injection, 710 Denver-area earthquakes have been recorded of contamination additional cement were! 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